Red wine is an alcoholic beverage consumed since ancient times in the Mediterranean area. The ancient Greeks and Egyptians often wrote about the consumption of this drink. In particular, the spread of wine in this area was due to the climate favorable to the cultivation of vines. The wine comes from the fermentation of grape juice derived from the pressing of the berries. The juice that comes from the berries is almost always yellowish in color and remains clear or becomes black or pink depending on the quality of the grape. The process that transforms grape juice into wine is called “vinification”. In fact, this process is favored by molecules present on the skin called anthocyanins.
Red wine has numerous organoleptic properties. Obviously it must be drunk in moderation in fact it usually contains variable quantities of ethyl alcohol between 11% and 13%. Excessive amounts of alcohol are known to be harmful to health. Drunk in moderate quantities it produces great health benefits thanks to numerous molecules among which the most famous is resveratrol which belongs to the phenol family. In particular, it has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor, blood thinning properties.
In particular, the protective activity of red wine against cardiovascular diseases is known. In fact, a glass of red wine a day (about 150 grams) reduces the incidence of stroke from coagulation phenomena by 50%. Furthermore, moderate consumption of red wine has been shown to protect the brain from the cognitive decline produced by Alzheimer’s disease.
Furthermore, this wine produces significant cardiovascular benefits. In fact, it contains molecules called saponins that bind cholesterol in the intestine, reducing its absorption. The cholesterol level in individuals given resveratrol was measured in guinea pigs and subsequently also in men. In particular, there has always been a drop in cholesterol, especially LDL. In addition, in these individuals there was also a decrease in inflammatory phenomena.
In addition, a decrease in the damage to tissues and DNA produced by free radicals was found, which are fought by the antioxidants contained in red wine.
In addition, the content of ellagic acid in red wine is known, which reduces blood sugar and the accumulation of fat in the liver. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory property of quercetin, also contained in red wine, has been demonstrated. In addition, there are other molecules that produce cardiovascular benefits such as tannins.
DAMAGE FROM EXCESS OF ALCOHOL
Obviously, in addition to talking about the benefits of moderate wine consumption, I must also talk about the problems caused by its excessive consumption. In fact, it contains ethyl alcohol which is a substance with a nerve action that can cause phenomena similar to drug addiction. In fact, it has a psychotropic action on the brain. In addition, it has an irritating action on the digestive tract. In addition, it produces stomach acid as well as gastroesophageal reflux. Finally, let’s not forget that it causes vitamin B1 deficiency.
In addition, liver damage due to excess alcohol can degenerate into fatty liver. In addition, we must not forget the damage to health and aesthetics produced by the conversion of excess alcohol into fatty acids. In particular, they tend to settle in the abdominal area.
So it is good not to abuse with the consumption of wine. In particular, it is good to know what are the optimal quantities that you can drink. It should also be considered that the different metabolic characteristics of men and women advise women to drink slightly less wine than men.
In particular, a healthy adult should not exceed an amount of alcohol corresponding to 30 or 40 grams per day. Instead this amount should not exceed 25 or 30 grams in the elderly. These quantities correspond to approximately 250 or 300 grams of red wine in adults and 200 or 250 grams in the elderly.
doc. Massimiliano Mangafà