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All evolved animals are equipped with a locomotor system. In particular, it is composed of active organs called muscles and passive organs called bones, cartilages, capsules. Then the muscles are made up of a large number of cells called myocytes. In other words, they are structures containing microscopic fibers that form molecular bonds between them. In addition, the rapid formation and breakdown of these bonds allow these microscopic fibers to slide together. That is, all this allows for muscle contraction. In other words, all these phenomena take place at a microscopic level in the muscles of the dog and the owner and allow movement.


Then the fuel that provides the energy for the contraction to occur is mainly represented by sugars. After that the body can also use the fats. In addition, the muscle fibers that use this type of fuel can be divided into red fibers and white fibers. In particular, the difference between the two consists in their speed of contraction.

They then use the chemical energy provided by ATP to contract, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. That is, they contract differently depending on whether they are red fibers or white fibers. In particular, the white ones have the characteristic of contracting rapidly by carrying out rapid and intense movements.

Then inside they are equipped with glycolytic enzymes (they allow the use of sugars) and typical of anaerobic metabolism. In addition, their work requires a high quantity of sugars and oxygen as well as a rapid removal of carbon dioxide and catabolites. That is, of waste substances of muscle metabolism. Especially the fast-twitch fibers are therefore supplied with a dense network of blood vessels. In particular, they cause large quantities of blood to flow during exertion. First of all, it contains red blood cells which release oxygen and take up carbon dioxide. Then the blood also carries the sugars essential for muscle work.


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Numerous changes occur in organism of the dog and owner during exertion. For example, it accelerates the heartbeat of dogs and owners, the blood vessels dilate. Then the aerobic or anaerobic metabolism is triggered according to the type of effort, therefore the type of muscle fibers involved and the intensity and duration of the effort. In particular, all living beings are organisms that have evolved to be in close relationship with the external environment. That is, they are able to adapt to the stimuli they receive and to new needs.


For example, each animal has muscles composed of a variable percentage of fast-twitch white fibers. Then there is a certain amount of slow twitch red fibers. Finally, there is also a percentage of intermediate fibers that are somewhere between the two.

In addition, the percentage of these three types of fibers (red, white and intermediate) is partly genetically determined. That is, there are individuals more predisposed to speed sports. That is, they have a higher percentage of white fibers. In other words, they have a high force and speed of contraction.

Then they use sugars as fuel which provide high amounts of energy quickly. For example, athletes specializing in speed races have a prevalence of white fibers. Secondly, athletes specialized in endurance races such as a 10,000 meter race, a walk or a marathon have a prevalence of red fibers. In other words, they are slow twitch fibers that use mainly fat as fuel. That is, this is why a marathon runner is always very thin.


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A constant sporting practice brings benefits and changes to the organism of any man or animal. That is, it is essential that it is practiced correctly. In particular, both us and our dog will obtain great benefits to the dog and owner’s organism from regular physical exercise.

Then the physical activity to be practiced together preferable for the achievement of a good state of health for both is running. That is, it is an activity to be practiced after verifying that both are in good health.

In particular, a medical examination for humans by a doctor and a veterinarian for the dog would be useful. For example, at least one electrocardiogram should be done, an aubscultation of the heart rhythm both at rest and after exertion and a check of the good health of the dog’s paw joints. Then, if no particular problems arise, both could establish a healthy training program from a physical and psychic point of view for both.


Then it must be said that every dog ​​always takes great pleasure in carrying out an activity together with his owner. In other words, the trick to making your friend like something is to make an activity look like a new game. That is, the dog must not perceive running as a constraint. In other words, everything must be linked to the dog’s abilities, temperament and age. For example, it is essential that the owner and dog practice running gradually. That is, the efforts must be increasing and gradual.


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Then the owner must be attentive to nutrition and hydration for both. In addition, another fundamental thing to practice running in a healthy way is the evaluation of external temperatures. That is, with excessive cold or heat it is preferable to stay at home. After that you have to start the motion with brisk walking. Then gradually increase the distances and travel speed. In other words, both muscles need to train slowly and steadily. That is, it is advisable to start with a walk by gradually increasing the speed. Then move on to a slow run and then a little faster. After that it would be advisable to always have control of the dog with a suitable harness and leash. In addition, it is very important to observe the dog often to perceive any signs of excessive fatigue.


That is, we must avoid that running and exercises are harmful to the health of the dog and the owner and that it perceives them as an unwelcome constraint. Finally, it is important to bring a supply of water for both of you. After that it would be very enjoyable for both of us to play. That is, the dog likes the game of retrieving. For example, we could throw a ball or other object and get it back.

First of all, this is all useful physical exercise. Then it is also a psychological stimulus that relieves the boredom of our friend who often spends the day at home in a state of inactivity. In addition we could play at being pulled by our dog using a leash and harness. Still you can use a bicycle to move together. in other words the man pedals and holds the dog on the leash and the dog runs slowly with him. Then I repeat that, even in this case, it is essential that the owner is careful to evaluate any signs of excessive fatigue of the dog.


A factor that should not be underestimated is nutrition. That is, if the dog will carry out a somewhat demanding activity, it is recommended to provide the animal with 30% of the usual ration. In addition, it must be administered at least three hours before physical activity and no earlier than its hours after. First of all, proper nutrition is essential.

That is, the dog must eat by ingesting a sufficient amount of protein. In other words, it would be good to provide him with an adequate ration of beef. Then combine carbohydrates and fruit. That is, I would add carrots, potatoes, apples and rice. In addition, a tablespoon of olive oil would be healthy. After that it is necessary to evaluate the quantities to be administered.

The basic formula for calculating the dog’s energy needs is as follows: get a calculator and raise the dog’s weight in kilograms to a power. That is, we raise the weight by 0.75 and then we multiply the result by 130. For example if I have a 40-kilo dog elvo with the calculator 40 by 0.75 and I get the fly by 16. In addition, I multiply 16 by 130 and I get 2080 kcal. In particular it is the needs of a dog. Then I multiply the result by a value that can range from 1.2 to 2 depending on the intensity of the training. That is, in the example made a little while ago I would get a value between 2496 and 4160 kilocalories.

doc. Massimiliano Mangafà


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